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May 24, 2010

Some useful notes of Photoshop cs

Adobe® Photoshop® CS
Photoshop is a very exciting bitmap image editing application. In windows based no other bitmap image editing application is better than Photoshop 7. It gives you so many facilities by which you can make changes in your Photos or in Graphic designing and for this some useful tools name and their function are given below.
Rectangular Marquee tool :- It is used for selecting a rectangular portion of image for using this tool, click on the tool and drag the mouse- cursor on the image diagonally when you drag the mouse-cursor a dotted rectangle appears. For deselecting click somewhere else on the image or press ctrl+D.

Polygon lasso tool:- with this tool you don’t have to drag just simply click and move and click there only which you want to select. If you finish selecting than double click or click on the straight point.

Lasso tool:- This is free selection tool, just click the tool and drag it on the image to select the desired portion of image. Photoshop connects your starting point to the ending point.

Move tool:- This tool is used to move the selected part of image, layers and guides. To move a layer make the desired layer active and drag it with move tool.

Single Row marquee tool:- This is used for selecting a single row of pixels . just click the tool, than click at the desired spot on the image and a horizontal dotted line appears there. It is used for removing the borders of picture.

Single column Marquee tool:- This is used for selecting a single column of pixels just click the tool. Than click at desired spot on the image and a vertical dotted line appears there. It is also used for removing the borders of picture.

Elliptical marquee tool :- this is used for selecting an elliptical portion of image. Click the tool and drag the mouse cursor on the image diagonally when desired portion of image is selected, stop dragging the mouse.

Magic wand tool :- this is used for selecting the whole portion of a particular color for example if you want to select the all red part of the image than click the tool and click the yellow spot in the image.

Magnetic lasso tool :- this tool is use for selecting the portion of image with a distinc boundary for this click the tool, click at the starting point, now move the mouse along the distinct edge to finish the selection and click again at the starting point.
Crop tool :- This is used to crop the image for this click the tool. Drag the tool on the image diagonally to draw a dotted rectangle. If you don’t want to crop the image than press esc key.


Here are the few steps which will guide you in working on Photoshop cs
The Photoshop work area is arranged to help you focus on creating and editing images.

A. Menu bar: The menu bar contains menus for performing tasks. The menus are organized by topic. For example, the Layers menu contains commands for working with layers.
B. Options bar: The options bar provides options for using a tool.
C. Toolbox: The toolbox holds tools for creating and editing images.
D. Active image area: Active image can be seen.
E. Palette well: The palette well helps you organize the palettes in your work area.
F. Palettes: Palettes help you monitor and modify images.

Using the toolbox
A. The marquee tools: These tools help you to make rectangular, elliptical, single row, and single column selections.
B. The Move tool: These tools help you to moves selections, layers, and guides.
C. The lasso tools: These tools help you to make freehand, polygonal (straight-edged), and magnetic* (snap-to) selections.
D. The Magic Wand tool : These tools help you to selects similarly colored areas.
F. The Crop tool: These tools help you to trims images.
G. The Slice tool: These tools help you to creates slices.
The Slice Select tool: These tools help you to selects slices.
H. The Healing Brush tool: These tools help you to paints with a sample or pattern to repair imperfections in a image.
The Patch tool: These tools help you to repairs imperfections in a selected area of an image using a sample or pattern.
The Color Replacement tool : These tools help you to replaces a selected color with a new color.
I. The Brush tool : These tools help you to paints brush strokes.
The Pencil tool : These tools help you to paints hard-edged strokes.
J. The Clone Stamp tool: These tools help you to paints with a sample of an image.
The Pattern Stamp tool: These tools help you to paints with part of an image as a pattern.
K. The History Brush tool: These tools help you to paints a copy of the selected state or snapshot into the current image window.
The Art History brush tool : These tools help you to paints with stylized strokes that simulate the look of different paint styles, using a selected state or snapshot.
L. The Eraser tool: These tools help you to erases pixels and restores parts of an image to a previously saved state.
The Background Eraser tool: These tools help you to erases areas to transparency by dragging.
The Magic Eraser tool: These tools help you to erases solid-colored areas to transparency with a single click.
M. The gradient tools: These tools help you to create straight-line, radial, angle, reflected, and diamond blends between colors.
The Paint Bucket tool: These tools help you to fills similarly colored areas with the foreground color.
N. The Blur tool: These tools help you to blurs hard edges in an image.
The Sharpen tool: These tools help you to sharpens soft edges in an image.
The Smudge tool: These tools help you to smudges data in an image.
O. The Dodge tool: These tools help you to lightens areas in an image.
The Burn tool: darkens areas in an image.
The Sponge tool: These tools help you to changes the color saturation of an area.
P. The path selection tools: These tools help you to make shape or segment selections showing anchor points, direction lines, and direction points.
Q. The type tools: These tools help you to create type on an image.
The type mask tools: These tools help you to create a selection in the shape of type.
R. The pen tools: These tools help you to let you draw smooth-edged paths.
S. The Custom Shape tool: These tools help you to makes customized shapes selected from a custom shape list.
T. The annotation tools: These tools help you to make notes and audio annotations that can be attached to an image.
U. The Eyedropper tool: These tools help you to samples colors in an image.
The Measure tool: These tools help you to measures distances, locations, and angles.
V. The Hand tool: These tools help you to moves an image within its window.
W. The Zoom tool: These tools help you to magnifies and reduces the view of an image.

To display or hide tool tips:
·         Choose Edit > Preferences > General. Select or deselect Show Tool Tips.
·         To display or hide rulers: Choose View > Rulers.
·         To change the rulers' settings:
·         Do one of the following:
         Double-click a ruler.
         Choose Edit > Preferences > Units & Rulers.
         Right-click the ruler and then choose a new unit from the context menu.
·         For Rulers, choose a unit of measurement.
·         For Point/Pica Size, choose from the following options:
         PostScript (72 points per inch) if you are printing to a PostScript device.
         Traditional to use printer's 72.27 points per inch. Click OK.
To duplicate an image:
·         Open the image you want to duplicate. Choose Image > Duplicate.
·         Enter a name for the duplicated image. If you want to duplicate the image without merging the layers, select Duplicate Merged Layers Only. Click OK.
To show or hide a grid or guides:
·         Do one of the following:
         Choose View > Show > Grid.
         Choose View > Show > Guides.
• Choose View > Extras. This command also shows or hides selection edges, target path, slices, and notes.
To place a guide:
·         If the rulers are not visible, choose View > Rulers. Create a guide:
         Choose View > New Guide. In the dialog box, select Horizontal or Vertical orientation, enter a position, and click OK.
         Drag from the horizontal ruler to create a horizontal guide.
·         Dragging to create a horizontal guide
         Hold down Alt, and drag from the vertical ruler to create a horizontal guide.
         Drag from the vertical ruler to create a vertical guide.
         Hold down Alt, and drag from the horizontal ruler to create a vertical guide.
         Hold down Shift and drag from the horizontal or vertical ruler to create a guide that snaps to the ruler ticks.
·         The pointer changes to a double-headed arrow when you drag a guide.
To lock all guides:
1. Choose View > Lock Guides.
About bitmap images
Bitmap images; technically called raster images-are made up of a grid of dots known as pixels. When working with bitmap images, you edit pixels rather than objects or shapes. Bitmap images are the most common electronic medium for continuous-tone images, such as photographs or digital paintings, because they can represent subtle gradations of shades and color.
Bitmap images can lose detail when scaled on-screen because they are resolution-dependent, they contain a fixed number of pixels, and each pixel is assigned a specific location and color value. Bit mapped images can look jagged if they're printed at too low a resolution because the size of each pixel is increased.
About vector graphics
Vector graphics are made up of mathematically defined lines and curves called vectors. This means that you can move, resize, or change the color of a line without losing the quality of the graphic.
Vector graphics are resolution-independent--that is, they can be scaled to any size and printed at any resolution without losing detail or clarity. As a result, vector graphics are the best choice for representing bold graphics that must retain crisp lines when scaled to various sizes.
To change the pixel dimensions of an image:
·         Choose Image > Image Size.
·         To maintain the current proportions of pixel width to pixel height, select Constrain Proportions. This option automatically updates the width as you change the height, and vice versa.
·         Under Pixel Dimensions, enter values for Width and Height. To enter values as percentages of the current dimensions, choose Percent as the unit of measurement. The new file size for the image appears at the top of the Image Size dialog box, with the old file size in parentheses.
·         Make sure that Resample Image is selected, and choose an interpolation method.
·         When you're done setting options, click the OK button.
To view the print size on-screen:
·         Choose View > Print Size. Or, Select the Hand tool or Zoom tool, and click Print Size in the options bar.
To determine a suggested resolution for an image:
·         Choose Image > Image Size. Click Auto.
·         For Screen, enter the screen frequency for the output device. If desired, choose a new unit of measurement. Note that the screen value is used only to calculate the image resolution, not to set the screen for printing.
·         For Quality, select an option:
         Draft to produce a resolution the same as the screen frequency (no lower than 72 pixels per inch).
         Good to produce a resolution 1.5 times the screen frequency.
         Best to produce a resolution 2 times the screen frequency.
To open a file using the Open command:
·         Choose File > Open. Select the name of the file you want to open. Click Open.
To open a recently used file:
·         Choose File > Open Recent, and select a file from the submenu.
To specify the number of files that are available in the Open Recent submenu:
·         Choose Edit > Preferences > File Handling.
·         Enter a number in the Recent File List Contains text box. Click OK.
To specify the file format in which to open a file:
·         Choose File > Open As, and select the file you want to open. Then choose the desired format from the Open As pop-up menu, and click Open.
An introduction to color management
RGB Color mode
Photoshop's RGB Color mode uses the RGB model, assigning an intensity value to each pixel ranging from 0 (black) to 255 (white) for each of the RGB (red, green, blue) components in a color image.
RGB images use three colors, or channels, to reproduce colors on-screen. The three channels translate to 24 (8 bits x 3 channels) bits of color information per pixel. With 24-bit images, up to 16.7 million colors can be reproduced. With 48-bit images (16 bits per channel), even more colors can be reproduced.
Although RGB is a standard color model, the exact range of colors represented can vary, depending on the application or display device. Photoshop's RGB Color mode varies according to the working space setting that you have specified in the Color Settings dialog box.
CMYK Color mode
In Photoshop's CMYK mode, each pixel is assigned a percentage value for each of the process inks. The lightest (highlight) colors are assigned small percentages of process ink colors, the darker (shadow) colors higher percentages.
Use the CMYK mode when preparing an image to be printed using process colors. Converting an RGB image into CMYK creates a color separation. If you start with an RGB image, it's best to edit first in RGB and then convert to CMYK at the end of your process. You can also use CMYK mode to work directly with CMYK images scanned or imported from high-end systems.
Although CMYK is a standard color model, the exact range of colors represented can vary, depending on the press and printing conditions. Photoshop's CMYK Color mode varies according to the working space setting that you have specified in the Color Settings dialog box.
Lab Color mode
In Photoshop, the Lab Color mode has a lightness component (L) that can range from 0 to 100. In the Adobe Color Picker, the a component (green-red axis) and the b component (blue-yellow axis) can range from +127 to -128. In the Color palette, the a component and the b component can range from +120 to -120.
Lab images can be saved in Photoshop, Photoshop EPS, Large Document Format (PSB), PDF, Photoshop Raw, TIFF formats. 48-bit (16 bits per channel) Lab images can be saved in Photoshop, Large Document Format (PSB), Photoshop PDF, Photoshop Raw, or TIFF formats.
Lab color is the intermediate color model Photoshop uses when converting from one color mode to another.
Bitmap mode
This mode uses one of two color values (black or white) to represent the pixels in an image. Images in Bitmap mode are called bitmapped 1-bit images because they have a bit depth of 1.
Grayscale mode
Grayscale mode uses up to 256 shades of gray. Every pixel of a grayscale image has a brightness value ranging from 0 (black) to 255 (white). Grayscale values can also be measured as percentages of black ink coverage (0% is equal to white, 100% to black). Images produced using black-and-white or grayscale scanners typically are displayed in Grayscale mode.
These guidelines apply to converting images to and from Grayscale mode:
         You can convert both Bitmap-mode and color images to grayscale.
         To convert a color image to a high-quality grayscale image, Photoshop discards all color information in the original image. The gray levels (shades) of the converted pixels represent the luminosity of the original pixels.
         When converting from grayscale to RGB, the color values for a pixel are based on its previous gray value. A grayscale image can also be converted to a CMYK image or to a Lab color image.
To select a color display option:
·         Choose Edit > Preferences > Display & Cursors.
·         Select Use Diffusion Dither to minimize dither patterns produced by dithering.
To convert an image to another mode:
·         Choose Image > Mode and the mode you want from the submenu. Modes not available for the active image appear dimmed in the menu.
·         Images are flattened when converted to Multichannel, Bitmap, or Indexed Color mode, because these modes do not support layers.
To adjust tonal range using Levels:
·         Choose Image > Adjustments > Levels. Or, Layer > New Adjustment Layer > Levels. Click OK in the New Layer dialog box.
·         To adjust tones for a specific color channel, choose an option from the Channel menu.
·         To adjust the shadows and highlights manually, drag the black and white Input Levels sliders to the edge of the first group of pixels on either end of the histogram. Moving the middle slider adjusts the image gamma. Click OK.
To open the Curves dialog box:
·         Choose Image > Adjustments > Curves. Or, Choose Layer > New Adjustment Layer > Curves. Click OK in the New Layer dialog box.
·         To make the Curves grid finer, hold down Alt, and click the grid. Alt -click again to make the grid larger.
To use the Color Balance command:
·         Choose Image > Adjustments > Color Balance. Or, choose Layer > New Adjustment Layer > Color Balance. Click OK in the New Layer dialog box.
·         Select Shadows, Midtones, or Highlights to select the tonal range on which you want to focus the changes.
·         Select Preserve Luminosity to prevent changing the luminosity values in the image while changing the color. This option maintains the tonal balance in the image.
·         Drag a slider toward a color you want to increase in the image; drag a slider away from a color you want to decrease in the image.
To use the Brightness/Contrast command:
·         Choose Image > Adjustments > Brightness/Contrast. Or, Choose Layer > New Adjustment Layer > Brightness/Contrast. Click OK in the New Layer dialog box.
·         Drag the sliders to adjust the brightness and contrast.
To use the Variations command:
·         Choose Image > Adjustments > Variations.
·         Select the Show Clipping option if you want to display a neon preview of areas in the image that will be clipped--converted to pure white or pure black-- by the adjustment.
·         Select what to adjust in the image:
         Shadows, Midtones, or Highlights to indicate whether you want to adjust the dark, middle, or light areas.
         Saturation to change the degree of hue in the image. If you exceed the maximum saturation for a color, it may be clipped.
·         Drag the Fine/Coarse slider to determine the amount of each adjustment. Moving the slider one tick mark doubles the adjustment amount.
·         Adjust the color and brightness:
         To add a color to the image, click the appropriate color thumbnail.
         To subtract a color, click the thumbnail for its opposite color.
         To adjust brightness, click a thumbnail on the right side of the dialog box.
To sharpen a selection:
·         With the image layer selected in the Layers palette, draw a selection.
·         Choose Filter > Sharpen > Unsharp Mask. Adjust the options and click OK.
·         The image area within the selection will be sharpened, leaving the rest of the image untouched.
·         To selectively sharpen an image using an edge mask:
Create an edge mask.
         Open the Channels palette and select the channel that displays the grayscale image with the greatest contrast in the document window. Often, the green or the red channel will be the one you select.
Showing a channel with the greatest contrast
         Duplicate the selected channel.
         With the duplicate channel selected, choose Filter > Stylize > Find Edges.
         Choose Image > Adjustments > Invert to invert the image. Find Edges filter applied and image inverted
         With the inverted image still selected, choose Filter > Other > Maximum. Set the radius to a low number and click OK to thicken the edges and randomize the pixels.
         Choose Filter > Noise > Median. Set the radius to a low number and click OK.
         Choose Filter > Blur > Gaussian Blur to feather the edges.
         Choose Image > Adjustment > Levels and set the black point high to get rid of random pixels.
·         In the Channels palette, Ctrl-click the duplicate channel to make the edge mask a selection.
·         In the Layers palette, select the image layer. Make sure the selection is visible on the image.
·         Choose Select > Inverse.
·         With the selection active on the image layer, choose Filter > Sharpen > Unsharp Mask. Set the desired options and click OK.
To deselect selections:
·         Choose Select > Deselect (Ctrl+D). Or, If you are using the Rectangle Marquee tool, the Elliptical Marquee tool, or the Lasso tool, click anywhere in the image outside the selected area.
·         To reselect the most recent selection: Choose Select > Reselect(Shift+Ctrl+D).
To select a color range using preset colors:
·         Choose Select > Color Range. For Select, choose a color or tonal range.
·         Click Selection to display the selected areas in the preview area.
·         To preview the selection in the image window, choose an option for Selection Preview. Click OK.
To add to a selection or select an additional area:
·         Make a selection. Using any selection tool, do one of the following
         Select the Add to Selection option in the options bar, and drag.
         Hold down Shift, and drag to add another selection.
·         A plus sign appears next to the pointer when you're adding to a selection.
·         To subtract from a selection:
·         Make a selection. Using any selection tool, do one of the following:
         Select the Subtract from Selection option in the options bar, and drag to intersect with other selections.
         Hold down Alt, and drag to subtract another selection.
·         A minus sign appears next to the pointer when you're subtracting from a selection.
·         To select only an area intersected by other selections:
·         Make a selection. Using any selection tool, do one of the following:
         Select the Intersect with Selection option in the options bar, and drag.
         Hold down Alt+Shift and drag over the portion of the original selection that you want to select.
·         An "x" appears next to the pointer when
To expand or contract a selection by a specific number of pixels:
·         Choose Select > Modify > Expand or Contract.
·         For Expand By or Contract By, enter a pixel value between 1 and 100, and click OK.
·         To frame an existing selection with a new selection:
·         Use a selection tool to make a selection. Choose Select > Modify > Border.
·         Enter a value between 1 and 200 pixels for the border width of the new selection, and click OK.
To expand a selection to include areas with similar color:
·         Choose Select > Grow to include all adjacent pixels falling within the tolerance range specified in the magic wand options. Or, Choose Select > Similar to include pixels throughout the image, not just adjacent ones, falling within the tolerance range. [Note: You cannot use the Grow and Similar commands on images in Bitmap mode.]
To clean up stray pixels left inside or outside a color-based selection:
·         Choose Select > Modify > Smooth.
·         For Sample Radius, enter a pixel value between 1 and 100, and click OK.
To define a feathered edge for a selection tool:
·         Select any of the lasso or marquee tools. Enter a Feather value in the options bar. This value defines the width of the feathered edge and can range from 0 to 250 pixels.
To define a feathered edge for an existing selection:
·         Choose Select > Feather. Enter a value for the Feather Radius, and click OK.
·         [Note: A small selection made with a large feather radius may be so faint that its edges are invisible and thus not selectable. If a message appears stating "No pixels are more than 50% selected," either decrease the feather radius or increase the selection's size. Or click OK to accept the mask at its current setting and create a selection in which you cannot see the edges.]
To copy a selection:
·         Select the area you want to copy. Choose Edit > Copy or Edit > Copy Merged.
To copy a selection while dragging:
·         Select the Move tool , or hold down Ctrl to activate the Move tool.
·         Hold down Alt, and drag the selection you want to copy and move.
·         When copying between images, drag the selection from the active image window into the destination image window.
To create multiple copies of a selection within an image:
·         Select the Move tool , or hold down Ctrl to activate the Move tool. Copy the selection:
         Hold down Alt, and drag the selection.
         To copy the selection and offset the duplicate by 1 pixel, hold down Alt, and press an arrow key.
         To copy the selection and offset the duplicate by 10 pixels, press Alt+Shift, and press an arrow key.
·         As long as you hold down Alt, each press of an arrow key creates a copy of the selection and offsets it by the specified distance from the last duplicate. In this case, the copy isn't made on a new layer.
To paste one selection into another:
·         Cut or copy the part of the image you want to paste.
·         Select the part of the image into which you want to paste the selection. The source selection and the destination selection can be in the same image or in two different Photoshop images.
·         Choose Edit > Paste Into. The contents of the source selection appear masked by the destination selection.
·         Select the Move tool , or hold down the Ctrl key to activate the Move tool. Then drag the source contents until the part you want appears through the mask.
To save a selection: Choose Select > Save Selection.
·         To load a saved selection:
·         Choose Select > Load Selection, and then enter the options in the Load Selection dialog window.
·         Click OK to load selection.
To use the Canvas Size command:
·         Choose Image > Canvas Size. Do one of the following:
         Enter the dimensions you want the canvas to be in the Width and Height boxes. Choose the units of measurement you want from the drop-down menus next to the Width and Height boxes.
         Select Relative, and enter the amount by which you want to increase or decrease the size of the canvas.
·         For Anchor, click a square to indicate where to position the existing image on the new canvas.
·         Choose an option from the Canvas Extension Color menu. Click OK.
To rotate or flip an entire image:
·         Choose Image > Rotate Canvas, and choose one of the following commands from the submenu:
         180° to rotate the image by a half-turn.
         90° CW to rotate the image clockwise by a quarter-turn.
         90° CCW to rotate the image counterclockwise by a quarter-turn.
         Arbitrary to rotate the image by the angle you specify. If you choose this option, enter an angle between -360 and 360 in the angle text box. Then click OK.
• Flip Canvas Horizontal to flip the image horizontally, along the vertical axis.
• Flip Canvas Vertical to flip the image vertically, along the horizontal axis.
To crop an image using the Crop tool:
·         Select the Crop tool .
·         Drag over the part of the image you want to keep to create a marquee. The marquee doesn't have to be precise--you can adjust it later.
·         If necessary, adjust the cropping marquee:
         To move the marquee to another position, place the pointer inside the bounding box and drag.
         To scale the marquee, drag a handle. To constrain the proportions, hold down Shift as you drag a corner handle.
         To rotate the marquee, position the pointer outside the bounding box (the pointer turns into a curved arrow), and drag. To move the center point around which the marquee rotates, drag the circle at the center of the bounding box.
·         To complete the crop, press Enter or click the Commit button in the options bar, or double-click inside the cropping marquee. Or, To cancel the cropping operation, press Esc or click the Cancel button in the options bar.
To crop an image using the Crop command:
·         Select the part of the image you want to keep. Choose Image > Crop.
·         To scale, rotate, skew, distort, or apply perspective:
·         Select what you want to transform.
·         Choose Edit > Transform > Scale, Rotate, Skew, Distort, or Perspective.
·         In the options bar, click a square on the reference point locator .
·         Do one or more of the following:
         If you chose Scale, drag a handle on the bounding box. Press Shift as you drag a corner handle to scale proportionately. When positioned over a handle, the pointer becomes a double arrow.
         If you chose Rotate, move the pointer outside of the bounding border (it becomes a curved, two-sided arrow), and then drag. Press Shift to constrain the rotation to 15° increments.
         If you chose Skew, drag a side handle to slant the bounding box.
         If you chose Distort, drag a corner handle to stretch the bounding box.
         If you chose Perspective, drag a corner handle to apply perspective to the bounding box.
·         If desired, switch to a different type of transformation by selecting a command from the Edit > Transform submenu.
·         When you're satisfied with the results, do one of the following:
         Press Enter or, click the Commit button in the options bar, or double-click inside the transformation marquee.
         To cancel the transformation, press Esc or click the Cancel button in the options bar.
To flip or rotate precisely:
·         Select what you want to transform.
·         Choose Edit > Transform and choose one of the following commands from the submenu:
         Rotate 180° to rotate by a half-turn
         Rotate 90° CW to rotate clockwise by a quarter-turn
         Rotate 90° CCW to rotate counterclockwise by a quarter-turn
         Flip Horizontal to flip horizontally, along the vertical axis
         Flip Vertical to flip vertically, along the horizontal axis
To duplicate an item when transforming it: Hold down Alt when selecting the Transform command.
·         Retouching and repairing images
·         You can use the Clone Stamp tool, Pattern Stamp tool, Healing Brush tool, and Patch tool to clone pixels and repair images.
To use the Clone Stamp tool:
·         Select the Clone Stamp tool .
·         Choose a brush tip and set brush options for the blending mode, opacity, and flow in the options bar.
·         Next, determine how you want to align the sampled pixels. Select Aligned in the options bar to sample pixels continuously, without losing the current sampling point, even if you release the mouse button. Deselect Aligned to continue to use the sampled pixels from the initial sampling point each time you stop and resume painting.
·         Select Use All Layers in the options bar to sample data from all visible layers; deselect Use All Layers to sample only from the active layer.
·         Set the sampling point by positioning the pointer in any open image and Alt-clicking.
·         Drag over the area of the image you want to correct.
To use the Pattern Stamp tool:
·         Select the Pattern Stamp tool .
·         Choose a brush tip and set brush options (blending mode, opacity, and flow) in the options bar.
·         Select Aligned in the options bar to sample pixels continuously, without losing the current sampling point, even if you release the mouse button.
·         Select a pattern from the Pattern pop-up palette in the options bar.
·         If you'd like to apply the pattern with an impressionistic effect, select Impressionist.
·         Drag in the image to paint with the pattern.
To use the Healing Brush tool:
·         Select the Healing Brush tool .
·         Click the brush sample in the options bar and set brush options in the pop-up palette:
         For more information on the Diameter, Hardness, Spacing, Angle, and Roundness options.
         If you're using a pressure-sensitive digitizing tablet, choose an option from the Size menu to vary the size of the healing brush over the course of a stroke. Choose Pen Pressure to base the variation on the pen pressure. Choose Stylus Wheel to base the variation on the position of the pen thumbwheel. Choose Off to not vary the size.
·         Choose a blending mode from the Mode pop-up menu in the options bar:
         Choose Replace to preserve noise, film grain, and texture at the edges of the brush stroke.
         For more information on the Normal, Multiply, Screen, Darken, Lighten, Color, and Luminosity modes.
·         Choose a source to use for repairing pixels in the options bar: Sampled to use pixels from the current image, or Pattern to use pixels from a pattern. If you chose Pattern, select a pattern from the Pattern pop-up palette.
·         Select Aligned in the options bar to sample pixels continuously, without losing the current sampling point, even if you release the mouse button. Deselect Aligned to continue to use the sampled pixels from the initial sampling point each time you stop and resume painting.
·         Select Use All Layers in the options bar to sample data from all visible layers. Deselect Use All Layers to sample only from the active layer.
·         For the Healing Brush tool in sampling mode, set the sampling point by positioning the pointer in any open image and Alt-clicking.
·         Drag in the image.
To repair an area using sampled pixels:
·         Select the Patch tool . Do one of the following:
         Drag in the image to select the area you want to repair, and select Source in the options bar.
         Drag in the image to select the area from which you want to sample, and select Destination in the options bar.
·         To adjust the selection, do one of the following:
         Shift-drag in the image to add to the existing selection.
         Alt-drag in the image to subtract from the existing selection.
         Alt-Shift-drag in the image to select an area intersected by the existing selection.
·         Position the pointer inside the selection, and do one of the following:
         If Source is selected in the options bar, drag the selection border to the area from which you want to sample. When you release the mouse button, the originally selected area is patched with the sampled pixels.
         If Destination is selected in the options bar, drag the selection border to the area you want to patch. When you release the mouse button, the newly selected area is patched with the sampled pixels.
To use the Color Replacement tool:
·         Select the Color Replacement tool .
·         Choose a brush tip in the options bar. Generally, you'll want to keep the blending mode set to Color.
·         For the Sampling option, choose one of the following:
         Continuous to sample colors continuously as you drag
         Once to replace the targeted color only in areas containing the color that you first click
         Background Swatch to erase only areas containing the current background color
·         For the Limits option, select one of the following:
         Discontiguous to replace the sampled color wherever it occurs under the pointer
         Contiguous to replace colors that are contiguous with the color immediately under the pointer
         Find Edges to replace connected areas containing the sampled color while better preserving the sharpness of shape edges
·         For tolerance, enter a percentage value (ranging from 0 to 255) or drag the slider. Choose a low percentage to replace colors very similar to the pixel you click, or raise the percentage to replace a broader range of colors.
·         To define a smooth edge to the areas you correct, select Anti-aliased.
·         Choose a foreground color to use to replace the unwanted color.
·         Click the color you want to replace in the image. Drag in the image to replace the targeted color.
To use the Smudge tool:
·         Select the Smudge tool .
·         Choose a brush tip and options for the blending mode in the options bar.
·         Select Use All Layers in the options bar to smudge using color data from all visible layers. If this is deselected, the Smudge tool uses colors from only the active layer.
·         Select Finger Painting in the options bar to smudge using the foreground color at the beginning of each stroke. If this is deselected, the Smudge tool uses the color under the pointer at the beginning of each stroke. Drag in the image to smudge the pixels.
To use the Blur tool:
·         Select the Blur tool .
·         Choose a brush tip and set options for the blending mode and strength in the options bar.
·         Select Use All Layers in the options bar to blur using data from all visible layers. If this is deselected, the tool uses data from only the active layer. Drag over the part of the image you want to blur.
To use the Sharpen tool:
·         Select the Sharpen tool .
·         Choose a brush tip and set options for the blending mode and strength in the options bar.
·         Select Use All Layers in the options bar to sharpen using data from all visible layers. If this is deselected, the tool uses data from only the active layer. Drag over the part of the image you want to sharpen.
To use the Dodge tool or the Burn tool:
·         Select the Dodge tool or the Burn tool .
·         Choose a brush tip and set brush options in the options bar. In the options bar, select one of the following:
         Midtones to change the middle range of grays.
         Shadows to change the dark areas
         Highlights to change the light areas
·         Specify the exposure for the Dodge tool or the Burn tool.
·         Click the airbrush button to use the brush as an airbrush. Alternately, select the Airbrush option in the Brushes palette. Drag over the part of the image you want to lighten or darken.
To use the Sponge tool:
·         Select the Sponge tool . Choose a brush tip and set brush options in the options bar.
·         In the options bar, select the way you want to change the color.
         Saturate to intensify the color's saturation. Desaturate to dilute the color's saturation
·         Specify the flow for the Sponge tool. Drag over the part of the image you want to modify.
To distort an image:
·         Select the layer you want to distort. To change only part of the current layer, select that area.
·         Choose Filter > Liquify.
·         Freeze areas of the image that you don't want to alter.
·         Choose any of the liquify tools to distort the image. Drag in the preview image to distort the image.
·         After distorting the preview image, you can use the Reconstruct tool or other controls to fully or partially reverse the changes or to change the image in new ways.
·         Do one of the following:
         Click OK to close the Liquify dialog box and apply the changes to the active layer.
         Click Cancel to close the Liquify dialog box without applying changes to the layer.
         Click Restore All to revert all distortions to the preview image, leaving all options in their current settings.
         Hold down Alt and click Reset to revert all distortions to the preview image and reset all options to their defaults. You can use the Edit > Fade command to create additional effects.
Drawing
To create a new shape:
·         Select a shape tool or a Pen tool. Make sure that the Shape Layers button is selected in the options bar.
·         To choose the color of the shape, click the color swatch in the options bar, and then choose a color from the Color Picker.
·         If you want to apply a style to the shape, select a preset style from the Style pop-up menu.
·         Set additional tool-specific options. Drag in your image to draw a shape. You can then resize or edit the shape.
To fill a shape with a pattern or gradient:
·         Select a shape layer in the Layers palette. Do one of the following:
         Choose Layer > Change Layer Content > Gradient, and set gradient options.
         Choose Layer > Change Layer Content > Pattern, and set pattern options.
To draw with the Pen tool:
·         Select the Pen tool . Set the following tool-specific options:
         To add an anchor point when you click a line segment and delete an anchor point when you click it, select Auto Add/Delete in the options bar.
         To preview path segments as you draw, click the inverted arrow next to the shape buttons in the options bar, and select Rubber Band.
·         Position the pen pointer where you want to begin to draw, and click to define the first anchor point.
·         Click or drag to set anchor points for additional segments. Complete the path:
         To end an open path, Ctrl-click away from the path.
         To close a path, position the pen pointer over the first anchor point. A small loop appears next to the pen tip when it is positioned correctly. Click to close the path.
·         To display the Paths palette: Choose Window > Paths.
To align components:
·         Use the Path Selection tool to select the components you want to align, and select one of the alignment options from the options bar: Top , Vertical Center , Bottom , Left , Horizontal Center , or Right .
To stroke a path using the current Stroke Path settings:
·         Select the path in the Paths palette.
·         Click the Stroke Path button at the bottom of the Paths palette. Each click of the Stroke Path button builds up the opacity of the stroke and in some cases makes it look thicker.
To use the Brush tool or Pencil tool:
·         Specify a foreground color. Select the Brush tool or Pencil tool . Do the following in the options bar:
         Choose a brush and set brush options.
         Choose a bending mode from the Mode menu.
         Specify an opacity by dragging the Opacity slider.
         For the Brush tool, specify a flow rate by dragging the Flow slider.
         Click the Airbrush button to use the brush as an airbrush.
         For the Pencil tool, select Auto Erase to paint the background color over areas containing the foreground color.
·         Do one or more of the following:
         Drag in the image to paint.
         To draw a straight line, click a starting point in the image. Then hold down Shift, and click an ending point.
         When using the Brush tool as an airbrush, hold down the mouse button without dragging to build up color.
To use the Art History Brush tool:
·         Select the Art History Brush tool . Do the following in the options bar:
         Choose a brush and set brush options.
         Specify a blending mode and opacity for the paint.
         Choose an option from the Style menu to control the shape of the paint stroke.
         For Area, enter a value to specify the area covered by the paint strokes. The greater the size, the larger the covered area and the more numerous the strokes.
         For Tolerance, enter a value or drag the slider to limit the regions where paint strokes can be applied. A low tolerance lets you paint unlimited strokes anywhere in the image. A high tolerance limits paint strokes to areas that differ considerably from the color in the source state or snapshot.
·         Drag in the image to paint.
To create a new brush tip shape:
·         Use any selection tool to select a part of an image to use as a custom brush. Feather should be set to 0 pixels if you want to create a brush with a sharp edge. The brush shape can be up to 2500 pixels by 2500 pixels in size.
·         Choose Edit > Define Brush Preset. Name the brush, and click OK.
To delete a preset brush:
·         Do one of the following:
         In the Brush pop-up palette or Brushes palette, select a brush, and choose Delete Brush from the palette menu.
         In the Brush pop-up palette or Brushes palette, Alt-click the brush you want to delete.
         In the Brushes palette, select a brush and click the Trash button , or drag a brush to the Trash button.
To use the Eraser tool:
·         Select the Eraser tool . Do the following in the options bar:
         Choose a brush and set brush options. This option is not available for Block mode.
         Choose a mode for the eraser--Brush, Pencil, or Block.
         Specify an opacity to define the strength of the erasure. An opacity of 100% erases pixels completely. A lower opacity erases pixels partially. (This option is not available for Block mode.)
         In Brush mode, specify a flow rate.
         In Brush mode, click the airbrush button to use the brush as an airbrush. Alternately, select the Airbrush option in the Brushes palette.
         To erase to a saved state or snapshot of the image, click the left column of the state or snapshot in the History palette, and then select Erase to History in the options bar.
·         Drag through the area you want to erase.
To apply a gradient fill:
·         To fill part of the image, select the desired area. Otherwise, the gradient fill is applied to the entire active layer.
·         Select the Gradient tool . Choose a gradient fill in the options bar:
         Click the triangle next to the gradient sample to pick a preset gradient fill.
         Click inside the gradient sample to view the Gradient Editor. Select a preset gradient fill, or create a new gradient fill. Then click OK.
·         Select an option for applying the gradient fill in the options bar:
         Linear gradient to shade from the starting point to the ending point in a straight line.
         Radial gradient to shade from the starting point to the ending point in a circular pattern.
         Angle gradient to shade in a counterclockwise sweep around the starting point.
         Reflected gradient to shade using symmetric linear gradients on either side of the starting point.
         Diamond gradient to shade from the starting point outward in a diamond pattern. The ending point defines one corner of the diamond.
·          Do the following in the options bar:
         Specify a blending mode and opacity for the paint.
         To reverse the order of colors in the gradient fill, select Reverse.
         To create a smoother blend with less banding, select Dither.
         To use a transparency mask for the gradient fill, select Transparency.
         Position the pointer in the image where you want to set the starting point of the gradient, and drag to define the ending point. To constrain the line angle to a multiple of 45°, hold down Shift as you drag.
To use the Paint Bucket tool:
·         Specify a foreground color. Select the Paint Bucket tool .
·         Specify whether to fill the selection with the foreground color or with a pattern.
·         Specify a blending mode and opacity for the paint.
·         Enter the tolerance for the fill.
·         To smooth the edges of the filled selection, select Anti-aliased.
·         To fill only pixels contiguous to the one you click, select Contiguous; leave unselected to fill all similar pixels in the image.
·         To fill pixels based on the merged color data from all visible layers, select All Layers.
·         Click the part of the image you want to fill. All specified pixels within the specified tolerance are filled with the foreground color or pattern.
To fill a selection or a layer with a foreground or background color:
·         Specify a foreground or background color.
·         Select the area you want to fill. To fill an entire layer, select the layer in the Layers palette.
·         Choose Edit > Fill to fill the selection or layer. Or to fill a path, select the path and choose Fill Path from the Paths palette menu.
·         In the Fill dialog box, for Use, choose one of the following options or select a Custom Pattern:
         Foreground Color, Background Color, Black, 50% Gray, or White to fill the selection with the specified color.
         Color to fill with a color you select from the Color Picker.
         Pattern to fill the selection with a pattern. Click the inverted arrow next to the pattern sample and select a pattern from the pop-up palette. You can load additional patterns using the pop-up palette menu. Select the name of a library of patterns or choose Load Patterns and navigate to the folder containing the patterns you want to use.
         History to restore the selected area to a state or snapshot of the image.
·         Specify the blending mode and opacity for the paint.
·         If you're working in a layer and want to fill only areas containing pixels, choose Preserve Transparency.
·         Click the OK button to apply the fill.
To fill a selection with a pattern:
·         Select the part of the image you want to fill. Do one of the following:
         Choose Edit > Fill. In the Fill dialog box, for Use, choose Pattern, select a pattern from the pop-up palette, and click OK.
         Select the Paint Bucket tool . In the options bar, choose Pattern from the Fill pop-up menu and select a pattern from the Pattern pop-up palette. Then click to fill the selected area with the pattern.
To stroke a selection or layer:
·         Specify a foreground color. Select the area or layer you want to stroke.
·         Choose Edit > Stroke. In the Stroke dialog box, specify the width of the hard-edged border.
·         5. For Location, specify whether to place the border inside, outside, or centered over the selection or layer boundaries.
·         6. Specify an opacity and a blending mode.
·         7. If you're working in a layer and want to stroke only areas containing pixels, select the Preserve Transparency option. Click OK.
To define a preset pattern:
·         Use the Rectangle Marquee tool on any open image to select an area to use as a pattern. Feather must be set to 0 pixels. Note that large images may become unwieldy.
·         Choose Edit > Define Pattern.
·         Enter a name for the pattern in the Pattern Name dialog box.
·         To delete a preset pattern:
·         Do one of the following:
         Select the pattern you want to delete, and choose Delete Pattern from the palette menu.
         Hold down Alt, position the pointer over a pattern (the pointer turns into scissors), and click.
To change the foreground or background color:
·         Do one of the following:
         To change the foreground color, click the upper color selection box in the toolbox.
         To change the background color, click the lower color selection box in the toolbox.
·         Choose a color in the Adobe Color Picker.
·         To reverse the foreground and background colors: Click the Switch Colors icon in the toolbox.
·         To restore the default foreground and background colors: Click the Default Colors icon in the toolbox.
To select the foreground or background color:
·         Select the Eyedropper tool .
·         To change the sample size of the eyedropper, choose an option from the Sample Size menu:
·         Do one of the following:
         To select a new foreground color, click in the image.
         To select a new background color, Alt-click in the image.
To use the Apply Image command:
·         Open the source and destination images, and select the desired layer and channel in the destination image. The pixel dimensions of the images must match for image names to appear in the Apply Image dialog box.
·         Choose Image > Apply Image.
·         Choose the source image, layer, and channel you want to combine with the destination.
·         Select Preview to preview the results in the image window.
·         Select Invert to use the negative of the channel contents in the calculation.
·         For Blending, choose a blending option. Enter an opacity to specify the effect's strength.
·         Select Preserve Transparency to apply the results only to opaque areas in the result layer.
·         Select Mask if you want to apply the blending through a mask. Then choose the image and layer containing the mask. Click OK.
To use the Calculations command:
·         Open the source image or images. Choose Image > Calculations.
·         Select Preview to preview the results in the image window. Choose the first source image, layer, and channel.
·         Select Invert to use the negative of the channel contents in the calculation. For Channel, choose Gray to get the same effect as would be obtained by converting the image to a grayscale image.
·         Choose the second source image, layer, and channel, specifying further options as described in further step.
·         For Blending, choose a blending mode. Enter an opacity to specify the effect's strength.
·         Select Mask if you want to apply the blending through a mask.
·         For Result, specify whether to place the blending results in a new document or in a new channel or selection in the active image.
Displaying the Layers palette
·         Choose Window > Layers. Be sure to move the palette from the dock to enable the palette menu.
To create a new layer or layer set using default options:
·         Click the New Layer button or New Layer Set button in the Layers palette.
To create a new layer or layer set and specify options:
·         Do one of the following:
         Choose Layer > New > Layer or choose Layer > New > Layer Set.
         Choose New Layer or New Layer Set from the Layers palette menu.
         Alt-click the New Layer button or New Layer Set button in the Layers palette.
·         Set layer options, and click OK.
         Name to specify a name for the layer or layer set.
         Use Layer Below to Create Clipping Mask. This option is not available for layer sets.
         Color to assign a color to the layer or layer set.
         Mode to specify a blending mode for the layer or layer set.
         Opacity to specify an opacity level for the layer or layer set.
         Fill with Mode-neutral color to fill the layer with a preset, neutral color.
·         To copy a layer set: Drag an existing layer set to the New Layer button.
To change the order of layers and layer sets:
1. Drag the layer or layer set up or down in the Layers palette. Release the mouse button when the highlighted line appears where you want to place the layer or layer set.
To align the contents of layers:
·         Do one of the following:
         To align the content of a layer to a selection border, make a selection in the image. Then select a layer in the Layers palette.
         To align the contents of multiple layers to a selection border, make a selection in the image. Then link the layers you want to align in the Layers palette.
·         Choose Alignment buttons in the Move tool options bar:
         Top Edges aligns the top pixel on the linked layers to the top pixel on the active layer or the top edge of the selection border.
         Vertical Centers aligns the vertical center pixel on the linked layers to the vertical center pixel on the active layer or the vertical center of the selection border.
         Bottom Edges aligns the bottom pixel on the linked layers to the bottom pixel on the active layer or the bottom edge of the selection border.
         Left Edges aligns the left pixel on the linked layers to the left pixel on the active layer or the left edge of the selection border.
         Horizontal Centers aligns the horizontal center pixel on the linked layers to the horizontal center pixel on the active layer or the horizontal center of the selection border.
         Right Edges aligns the right pixel on the linked layers to the right pixel on the active layer or the right edge of the selection border.
To lock all properties of a layer or layer set:
·         Select a layer or layer set. Click the Lock All option in the Layers palette.
·         To partially lock a layer:
·         Select a layer. Click one or more lock options in the Layers palette. Select one or more lock options:
         Lock Transparency to confine editing to the opaque portions of the layer.
         Lock Image to prevent modification of the layer's pixels using the painting tools.
         Lock Position to prevent the layer's pixels from being moved.
·         Note: For type layers, Lock Transparency and Lock Image are selected by default and cannot be deselected.
To rename a layer or layer set:
·         Do one of the following:
         Double-click the layer or layer set's name in the Layers palette, and enter a new name.
         Press Alt, and double-click the layer set's name in the Layers palette. Enter a new name in the Name text box, and click OK.
To rasterize a single layer:
1. Select the layer you want to rasterize. Choose Layer > Rasterize, and choose an option from the submenu.
To merge two layers or layer sets:
·         Position the layers or layer sets you want to merge next to each other in the Layers palette, and make sure that the visibility for both items is enabled.
·         Select the top item in the pair. Do one of the following:
         If the top item is a layer, choose Merge Down from the Layers menu or the Layers palette menu.
         If the top item is a layer set, choose Merge Layer Set from the Layers menu or the Layers palette menu.
To flatten an image:
·         Make sure that all the layers you want to keep are visible.
·         Choose Layer > Flatten Image, or choose Flatten Image from the Layers palette menu.
To specify a blending mode for a layer or layer set:
·         Select a layer or layer set in the Layers palette. Choose a blending mode:
         In the Layers palette, choose an option from the Blend Mode pop-up menu.
         Choose Layer > Layer Style > Blending Options, and then choose an option from the Blend Mode pop-up menu.
·         To display the Styles palette: Choose Window > Styles.
·         To set a global lighting angle:
·         To set a global lighting angle for all layers, do one of the following:
         Choose Layer > Layer Style > Global Light. In the Global Light dialog box, enter a value or drag the angle radius to set the Angle and Altitude, and click OK.
         In the Layer Style dialog box for Drop Shadow, Inner Shadow, or Bevel, select Use Global Light. For Angle, enter a value or drag the slider, and click OK.
To remove a style from a layer:
·         In the Layers palette, select the layer containing the style you want to remove. Do one of the following:
         In the Layers palette, drag the Effects bar to the Trash button.
         Choose Layer > Layer Style > Clear Layer Style.
         Select the layer, and then click the Clear Style button at the bottom of the Styles palette.
To add a mask that shows or hides a selection:
·         In the Layers palette, select the layer or layer set to which to add a mask.
·         Select the area in the image, and do one of the following:
         Click the New Layer Mask button in the Layers palette to create a mask that reveals the selection.
         Choose Layer > Add Layer Mask > Reveal Selection or Hide Selection.
·         To create a clipping mask:
·         Do one of the following:
         Hold down Alt, position the pointer over the line dividing two layers in the Layers palette (the pointer changes to two overlapping circles ), and click.
         Select a layer in the Layers palette, and choose Layer > Create Clipping Mask.
         Link the desired layers in the Layers palette. Then choose Layer > Create Clipping Mask from Linked.
To apply filters:
1. Do one of the following:
         To apply a filter to an entire layer, make sure that the layer is active or selected.
         To apply a filter to an area of a layer, select that area.
·         Choose Filter > Filter Gallery. To apply a filter, click the filter's name.
·         Enter values or select options for the filter you've selected. Do any of the following:
         Choose additional filters to apply.
         Rearrange applied filters.
         Remove applied filters.
·         6. When you're satisfied, click the OK button.
To use the Lighting Effects filter:
·         Choose Filter > Render > Lighting Effects. For Style, choose a style.
·         For Light Type, choose a type. If you're using multiple lights, select and deselect On to turn individual lights on and off.
·         To change the color of the light, click the color box in the Light Type area of the dialog box.
·         To set light properties, drag the corresponding slider for the available options:
·         To use a texture fill, choose a channel for Texture Channel. Click OK.
To display the Character palette:
Do one of the following:
         Choose Window > Character, or click the Character palette tab if the palette is visible but not active.
         With a type tool selected, click the palette button in the options bar.

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