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Jan 31, 2010

Basic of C++

The following is a program that diaplays "welcome to the world of c++"
//this is the basic example of c++
int main()
count<<"Welcome to world oc c++";
return 0;
it's output will be
Welcome to the world of c++

The example includes most of the components in a c++ program.
let's take a close look.
//this is the basic example of c++
look here the program starts with double slash indicating a comment and has no implication on the function or purpose of the program. you can add any comment to your program and the second lines starts with # and #include instructs the complier's pre-processor to hold the iostream.h stand and library file standard library of input and output are included in the 'iostream.h' standard file.
int main()
this is the srarting of program, all programs must begin with a 'main' function and the two parenthesis you are seeing is a function declaration the difference between function declaration and the other expression in source code is indicate by parentheses.
This is called brace. it indicate the begining of body of the function. the statements mentioned in the main function define the execution process the function.

count<<"welcome to the world of c++";
count generates the visual effects and it is also the output stream and is declared in the 'iostream.h' library file once executed . this statements displays the string "welcome to the world of c++"

return 0;

A return value is usally follows the return statements. in this case the value is 0. The main () function usally has a return value of 0.
The closing brace indicates the end of body of the main function and end of the program.

Jan 24, 2010

Hidden talents of vista

Vista is large and multi-faced operating system. It is an astonishingly complex piece of software that has every featured, advance security system parental controls, extreme good look and many more things. Now let’s focus on some of vista’s unsung features under the spot light, and that follows on from this article here are some features are given below do look and enjoy the vista.

Find anything, fast- You don’t have to manually hunt down what you need. Just press the windows key and start typing the name of what you’re looking for.

Flip through windows – The new interface provides a handy way to browse the application and documents open on your pc. It’s called flip3d and to use it just hold down the windows key and press tab. Vista then displays a 3d image of all the programs you have open.

Keep the child in check- With parental controls feature you can supervise your child when you are not in home.

Print without waste – When you are going to print the webpage at that time vista is very useful because it will provide print preview tool that enables you to manage how pages print to access it. Click the down arrow next to the printer icon at top right of window.

Recognize your scrawl – you can use this method to control your pc and input text using a pen instead of mouse and keyboard.

Bolster your security – When firewall is not switch on them also you can manage how vital security updates are downloading and installed. It also helps you to adjust security settings and update in a single window.

Take proper control - With user account control you are permitted to make change to settings.

Listen to your voice – If you are tired of typing or something else’s than with ‘The speech recognition tool’ You can vista to do instead of you.

Sleep easy – Click the gold power button from the start menu than vista saves your all your current works and it sleeps means next time when you start your pc the computer doesn’t have to go through that lengthy process.

Cut up your desktop – Vista’s snipping tool gives you total flexibility with options to grab the entire screen. Go to start than control panel than programs and click ‘turn window.

Work together – This application lets you setup virtual meeting over a wired or wireless networks. So that people can see documents you’re working on and exchange notes with each other.

Record TV – with this features you can watch and record your TV programs for this you should have a TV tuner built in or attached to the computer.

Jan 22, 2010

Microsoft Excel

Microsoft Excel is a major family member of microsoft office group. Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet program. Microsoft Excel is a very important member of Microsoft group. In past Microsoft Excel was created in Dos version which was called as lotus 123. Lotus 23 was also famous in that period. When windows 95 was launched after that every dos application software was slowly slowly completly disappeared. Microsoft Excel can be used to present a wide variety of information such as budgets, petty cash records, employee's wages,etc. Once data and formula have been entered. The program will perform the necessary calculations, Accounting, Statistics, Finance, Management field are the main field of this program. Microsoft Excel enables you to store, manipulate and chart numeric data in a 'grid' format on a computer system. Every field people use microsoft Excel spread sheet software to analyze and summarize mathematical statistical and financial data. Even in our daily life we can use and we are using Microsoft Excel to create a budget for monthly living expenses, analyze returns in the stock market. develop a business plan or calculate the loan payment required to purchase a new car.
A Microsoft Excel is an electronic version of an accountant's ledger pad . which is divided into vertical columns and horizontal rows. In Microsoft Excel there are 1 to 65536 rows and columns are labeled from A to IV(A,B,C............Z, AA, AB, AC,.............AZ................IV). The cell is given a unique address consiting of it's column letter followed by it's row number eg A1, A2, A3. Microsoft Excel application finename is excel.exe and it's extension is .xls.
For using Microsoft Excel in your computer you must have minimum this reqirements.
having Pentium processor 3 or 4 cpu.
120 mb ram
cd rom drive
windows 95 or latest operating system.

Jan 21, 2010

what are the main features of Vista ?

what are the main features of Vista ?
Having internet at home is great entertainment for children with internet they can do their homework very easily, they can chat with their friend and they will also play excitement games. This things are natural for any kind of children and this things are also natural for parents to want to moniter their children's online activities now this problem can be solve with windows vista is'nt it great, Microsoft's new operating system vista gives you to the parental control that allow you to tailor and track each user's computer and internet usage for this you will need to create a seprate user account for each person who access your p.c,.and they all user have to use their own logging details whenever they use it. and for parental control and to create user accounts follow these simple steps.
When you will install Vista operating system than you will get administrator account as your default user account. The first thing is to change the name of account, Picture and also change a password with you like and which will safe now go to control panal and click on 'add or remove user Accounts' option at the top right of the window. now the user account control warning will appear, so click on continue, click on 'change the account name' and enter a new name in that window which appears when you finished, click on 'manage account in the address bar. now click on the 'create a new account' and give the account name and choose the account type you want it will better to choose standard user for children. finally click on a create account button to finish the wizard and return to the manage accounts, now you can create a password for this account. creating password for the account is very important things, you should use non-alphabetical characters, as well as regular letters and numbers. you can also use spaces as well as upper and lower case. After creating password you can apply parental controls to the accounts that need them. so for this cliclk on start and go to control panal and be sure you must logged in administrator account, now click on 'set up parental control' in the user accouts and family safety section when computer asks for permission than click on 'continue' you will get a list of users click on user and put check next to 'on enforce current setting' to return o parental controls now turn on 'Activity reporting' so you can know what the user is doing with the computer. Click next to the 'on collect information about computer usage' option. and now below the 'parental control and activity reporting you will get 'window vista web filter' click on this, this will help you to control what the user is allowed to do on the internet. Set the first option to block some website. if you want to choose which website to block check the option labelled 'only allow website that are on the allow list'. in this case क्लिक on 'Edit' the allow and block list'. on this page add website you want blocked or allowed now click on finished and choose the restriction level, select 'Block file downloads' and click on ok. at last if you want user to use the computer for certain period than click on the time limit. A window will appear with grid showing time during a weeklong period. white square shows the time when user can log and blue square shows when they are not . click on square to change it's color. you can also drag a mouse for several change many at once. if this will done than user will ask for adiministration and password to use computer.

Jan 20, 2010


AS it's name, it defines itself it is the main components of computer or we can say it is the mother of computer. Everything is connected to motherboard, like procesor or other devices but you should be careful that which processor you have purchased and it should be compatible with your motherboard.generally all the motherboard are working with Intel and Amd processor. Ihave just said before thatwhatever company motherboard you buy it should compatible with your processor. Motherboard are comeing in many shape but two sizes are only common they are ATX and Microatx. ATX motherboard are little big and for this you have to purchase ATX casing but Microatx motherboard will fit in any casing. if you want to use many pheripherial card like sound card, wifi card, TV tuner etc than it will be better to choose ATX motherboard and you should be also careful about how much USB port are there, lan is inbuilt or not

Jan 19, 2010

what is Vista ?

what is Vista ?
Today Microsoft window is the worldwide dominant operating system. According to estimate nine out of ten computers have a version of Ms-windows intalled on them. Micorsoft has launched so many operating system. Microsoft have long history . The first operating system of windows was Dos(disk operating system) after that they launched Microsoft windows version 3.1, Microsoft windows 95, windows 98, windows me, windows classic, windows millenium, windows 2000, windows xp edition, blue edition, black edition and kapill of some years windows vista was launched.
Windows vista is an astonishingly complex piece of software that have every featured, advanced sequrity system, parental control, unforgetable look, improved networking, improve movie maker, proper photo gallery, a built in back utility, an alternative media center interface and many more. one thing make vista so secret that it have 100 of new feature which are hidden in depths of operating system. but some of it's hidden feature are given below first is print without waste, in this vista has a print preview tool that enables you to manage how pages print. To access it, click the down arrow next to the printer icon at the top right of the windows, second is you can record a t.v. show , you can acess radio stations and manage your digital photo collections for this you have to buy vista ultimate version and other features are you can boost your p.c. memory, you can shrink your programs, you can cut up your desktop, you can control your computer with your voice, you can burn your cd or dvd.

Jan 18, 2010

What is Media streaming?

Now a days people are seeing videos in internet also and this things has been possible due to media streaming . To view video in internet we use two kinds of technic one is streaming and other is non-streaming. Streaming means to send video in frame by frame . In television also same thing is being happening. when broad caster is playing anything in their studio, same time we are seeing in our television screen. when broadcaster is sending any digital data and same data television is receiving and playing serially and opposite to this cd, dvd, video cassete etc are the non-streaming method. a full video is available in cd, dvd, and cd player or dvd player is playing this video in frame by frame.
In streaming technic internet is sending the related video clips in small-small part in serial wise and before downloading the all video we can see the videos seing video in streaming method has maked so easy that you can not imagine. suppose you want to watch any video in internet and that video is 100 mb but withstreaming method when you will click in that link and at same time you can watch videos. The popularity of u-tube, metacafe etc are goes to this streaming technic.

Jan 17, 2010

Which Browser is best?

Which Browser is best?
Some years ago there was only one way to go inside the world of web that was Internet explorer. By seeing Internet explorer many company tried to make the way to go inside web they succeed also but that was not much more effective like internet explorer. but in today's world there are many browser which challenges internet explorer. and they are not just challenging but they had gone away from internet explorer, they are firefox, sefari, Opera, crome etc. Let's find out in this five which is the best web browser for this you have to focus on some useful thigs . like startup time of browser, loading speed of css and javascript.
The main challenger of internet explorer is Modzila firefox. Records are saying that when modzila firefox was launched on that day 80 lakh download were made, which were written in genus book. Everything is good in Modzila firefox but it's startup time is not good as accepted but one thing is also that day by day it is improving. it's firefox-3 is latest and it is very simple than it's previous version. it's main feature are bookmark, history management, search engine integration, tabd browsing etc. one thing make modzila firefox totally different with other that is it's loading time of css and javascript. Internet explorer is also trying hard to defend Modzila firefox. but it has not been success ful yet. if we talk about bookmark, history management and security it is not so much behind with internet explorer but it we talk about flash, css, javascript loading or password management than it is one step ahead with internet explorer. Now i think you know that who is in first position and if we talk about 2nd position than internet explorer can be kept and third position opera has taken

Jan 15, 2010

How to speed up my pc ?

This is 100$ question how to speed up my pc. This is a big problem that most of the user face and due to this they become irritate and they don't get anything to what to do in the begning your hardware most be updated you must bear a good memory for desktop p.c. it will be better to have 2 G.B. memory but if you have 512 or 128 m.b. ram that also ok for xp user. many times the old files also makes your computer slow. if you think this is also makes your computer slow. if you think this is also problem for making your computer slow than check your all drive and for checking you can follow these step. Right click on that drive which you want to check than choose properties and go to tool tab and click on check now button than if you click on start button than you will receive a dialog box, there you will receive a message if this message than tick on shedule disk check it will take sometime for checking . with window paging also you can speed up your p.c. for this go to setting properties and click on performance setting and go to advance tab and automatically window will start to clean swap files. other way is disk clean up in this go to start menu and go to system tools and choose the files which you want to remove and you can restore your lost files also from here. from diskdefragmenter also you can speed up your p.c. for this go to the destination drive and right click on the drive , go to properties click on tools , click on defragmenter now, and you will get a new dialog box with highlighting on your choosen drive, now finally click on defragment. there is another way to go to disk defragmenter and disk check for that click on start, go to all programs and click on accessories , click on tools and click on disk defragmenter

Jan 13, 2010

Which Processor is best ?

Processor is a heart of computer or we can also say that it is life of computer. Processor means to process something or to do something or to be ready before buying computer we should decide that which processor we are going to buy because everything is dependent in upon processor. if you decide about processor, than only you can buy or look a compatible motherboard because it may happen that the motherboard will not support the processor. Now a days there is competion between two company only one is marker leader INTEL and another is AMD. both the company have given everything for best result. it is also not fix that costing ten thousand processor will give better performance than five thousand . you can use any, either intel or amd if you are taking computer for your basic use. it will be better that take dual core or core2duo because they both consume less electricity and are fast and reliable. you should beware of buying pentium four processor and amd processor ethlonx2 because they are using much more electricity. Processor are mainly comeing in two version one is OEM means Original Eqipment Manufacture and other is Retail. price of retail is less than retail because while purchasing retail you will get any additional software for free and other is you will get cooler fan in retail processor and other main thing to focus are form any where you buy a processor that don't matter but there should have a cooler fan. because it cools the processor. if there will not be cooler fan than after sometime your processor will be heated and it will stop working and you will get massage that "computer was previosly shut down due to overheat or thermal so be careful. some times it may happen that your cooler fan is running computer is being shutdown and giving same massage at that time you should clean your cooler fan or it will be better that you change the fan.

DOS(Disk Operating System)

Every computer has a Communication Media between user and machine and that is done by Dos(Disk operating System). Dos is a System software which controls computer System and it's pheripherial devices. Dos has a responsible to communicate between user and hardware. Dos plays a role like coordinator between user and computer. Dos is also called Ms-Dos. Ms-Dos was the most popular operating system for micro computer in 90. which was developed by microsoft corporation. Actually dos is a program which does many work. Dos has two hidden files and command file.
There are the system files required to boot the computer. when we switch on the computer, it checks all the pheripherial device and at the same time it also begins to check the main memory which is called RAM(Random Access Memory) and after reading the RAM the computer start to searches the operating system and this process is called booting or in other language loading the system file in computer memory is called booting. Directory is the main memory cabinet where files are kept. It contains the name of file, their sizes, last date of modification and address of file many directory can be maintained on same disk called"root" and the root directory is symbolized "\" .
There are two kinds of dos command they are internal command and external command. Internal command are those , which can execute immediate because they are built for dos. for example some internal command are given below.
DATE, TIME, DIR, CLS, COPY, REN, MD, CD, etc. and External command are on the disk as program files. the disk drive has to read the files before execution. The file which have .com, .exe are known as External files for example some are given below CHKDSK, MORE, SYS, FORMAT TREE, EDIT etc.

Jan 11, 2010

Javescript- The eval function & Conversion function

The eval() function has many uses in sophiscated programming techniques. rather than looking for a number in a string, eval() looks for any valid javascripts expression. A simple example assigns 25 to the a variable
The use of eval() can be much more complicated than this. you can use any javascript expression in the string passed to eval() numeric opertions, comparision operation, statement, multiple statements, and even entire javascripts function. for example the following statements define a variable called fred and set it's value to 31. the value of the text variable is used as the variable's name:
var text="fred";
var statement=text +"=31";
because() can work with any expression, you can use it to perform calculation based on data entered by the user.
Conversion function
The parseInt function:- the parseInt() function looks for an integer number as the first part of the string. it ignores the decimal portion, if found. for example, this statement assigns the variable a to the value 39;
a=parseInt("39 steps");

the parseFloat function:- the parseFloat() function is similar to parseInt(), but works with floating-point values. It attempts to find a decimal floating-point number in the string, and returns it. for example, following statements assign the value 2.7178 to the variable a:
a="2.7178 is the base of a nutural logarithm.";

Using Internet with Netscape Navigator

using Internet with Netscape Navigator
For using internet with Netscape first you have to install Netscape Navigator. There is not much difference in Netscape and internet explorer. It have many tools and for example there is standard toolbar in that there is back, forward, Re-load stop buttons which are use for basic tool. If you want to open any address than type the address in address bar and click on search button which is made infront of address bar. Now you will get your homepage. and in same page if you want to open another website than click on file than click on new Navigator window and you will get blank page now type the address you want to go. for editing website click on file than click on edit page through Netscape navigator you can do everything like you can print the page you can check your email, you can compose a new mail, like this you can use netscape navigator. Netscape was very popular in 1990s but the popularity of Microsoft's internet explorer damages the market of Netscape navigator and by 2002 it had almost dissaperead.

What is Computer Virus and How it spread?

What is Computer Virus and How it spreadComputer virus is a progrme that make a duplicates of itself in the harddisk or virus is a that program that don't let you to open your file or folder or sometimes the harddisk also. Now a days it mainly spread through USB device like pendrive. sometimes virus damage the partition table also and it makes your system slow and sometimes your operating system may also courpted. some virus are hidden and you don't know about it for months. Some virus are hidden and it may happen that you don't know it for month.

Virus are mainly spread through as e-mail attachments while surfing in world wide web sites, while downloading files from files transfer protocal sites, using your pendrive in every computer, with pirated software which contains corrupted files and etc. virus are mainly carry through .exe, .com, .xls, .doc, .mdb files. and these files are dangerous you should also scan these kind of files before using and here are some files extension, that you should be careful while using. they are exe, sys, doc, xls, xla, zip, mdb, bin, ovl, drv, scr, arj it will be better that scan these kind of files with good antivirus and than use.

Jan 10, 2010

How to create an new Email Account in outlook Express

How to create an new Email Account in outlook Exp
Outlook Express is Ms-office Product. This is mainly use for email. Before using Outlook you have to create an email account, and for creating account you have to follow these step. Click on start button, than program, than click on outlook express. Now outlook express will open. Go to tools menu and click there and in submenu take a cursor to account and click there, you will have another dialog box, which will look like blank because no other account has created yet. At same dialog box at right side there is add button, click there. you will see another submenu and because we have to open mail account so click on mail option, you will get another dialog box in that type your name and click on Next, now if you have an email address than type in blank box which mainly comes through Internet service provider. than click on next. now in this menu you have to give information about server. which also comes from internet services provider and this information will come when you purchase or take a new internet connection. After giving information click on next, now type login name and password which is provided by internet service provider. and again click on next than click on finish. and now you can see, compose your email through Outlook express.

Jan 8, 2010

Maintaining Security in internet Explorer

Maintaining Security in internet Explorer
Maintaining security in internet explorer is 100$ word. Today everyone is facing this problem. How to secure their computer? How to prevent our computer from Hacking? How to stop unauthorised website or sensor website from watching our children. than follow this instruction. First open internet explorer and than go to tools menu. In tools menu click on internet explorer and than a dialog box will open for customizing. In this menu there is seven tabs options with the help of them you can customize your internet explorer. Now after general tan there is one security tab click on this, now you will get another dialog box. in this you can see a slidebar, if you drag it to upwards than it will take you to high security zone. in this zone no any outsider can harm you. but in high security zone you will be ask a question every time by internet explorer and you can not use the hole facility of internet explorer. so it is better to keep slidebar in medium high zone. when you keep the slides in medium high than a custom level button will enable. Now click on custom level button. now a new menu will be active, in this you can see many options you can choose by your needs, in this you will given three options enable, disable and prompt this means internet explorer will ask every time for bringing anything infront of you. you can also blocked unauthorised website, for this click on security tab, and after that click on restricted sites and you will see new dialog box, now in frist blank box tyoe the name of website yoy don't like or you want to block and click on ok. Now you can see the name of that website in big blank box in future you can also add or remove that site name.l

Jan 7, 2010

Role of Operating system

Role of Operating system
Operating system plays important role in computer. Without Operating system computer cannot run. it will be just a dead machine. Operating system manage a computer's resources- memory, pheripherial devices, and even cpu access and provide a battery of services to the user's programs. UNIX, first developed for micro computers and now widely used on both pcs and mainframes is one example.
In early days computer had no operating system. A user loaded a program from paper tape by employing switches to specify it's memory address, to start loading, and to run the program. when the program finished, the computer halted. the programmer had to have knowledge of every compuer detail, such as how much memory it had and the characteristics of I/o devices used by the program. It was quickly realized that this was an inefficient use of resources, particularly as the cpu was largely idle while wating for relatively slow I/o devices to finished tasks such as reading and writing data. if instead several programs could be loaded at once and coordinated to interleave their step of computation and I/o, more work could be done. The earliest operating system were small supervisor programs that did just that they coordinated several programs, accepting commands from the operator and provided them all with basic I/o operation. These were known as multiprogrammed system.

History of computer in Nepal

Computer was firstly introduced in Nepal in 1972 A.D. This was IBM 1401. At that period His majesty government has paid 125000 Per month as for this computer.
Established in 1975 A.D., called Yantrikee Sarinikaran Kendra(electronic data processing center) In 1991 it was converted to national computer center.

Characteristics of Computer.

Speed- It carry out the Computation very fast.
Accuracy- The results generated by computer are very accurate.
Versality- It can process Multiple types of data.
Automatic- If Instruction are given correctly, It can work automatic
Diligent- It is very hard working in it's work.

Jan 6, 2010

What is Internet ?

If we describe in simple word than, Internet it is the biggest and widest nerwork of computer in world. From which computer they are being running they are called server. Server always remains on and being connected to other server.
Internet has been most important part of every computer user. last ten years the demand of internet has increased more and more. Internet has made the whole world so close that we can say that world is in our grip. We can sit in one place and know the whole world stock exchange, we can see the live score of cricket, we can talk with our relatives as well as we can see them by sitting in our home. Internet has made the medical science so easy that doctor is sitting in America and he is doing Operation in Nepal through internet by Live. It has also been very helpful to media departments that anything is happening in anywhere or any place we can see through internet they are giving information to us by website or live or they are keeping in net and we can see that by sitting in Nepal. we can read the newspaper of United States of America through Internet. We can listen live radio of F.M. through internet. We can watch T.V. also. If we want any information about anything either it is related to education, Science, Medical reserch etc. we can get everything very easily by just one click.

What is WWW ?

World wide web (WWW) has been business part of Internet. WWW has been given facility us to get graphics and text we cannot imagine also how much data are avilable in internet. Government, Business organization, Company, Education, Institution etc they provide data to internet. WWW is a big marWhat is WWW ?ket of Income Source. Now a days every big and small company, mall, School, colleges, Hospital etc they all are keepingj their products brief in internet.
WWW is sending root address to inernet and takes us to correct server. When page, Graphics and text are sending to that computer, who has send the web address. After that web broweser keeps them in systamatic way or in line and then shows to screen. When web browser finished your demand than it goes to work for another computer who has asked something or for some information. If you want WWW server to load another page than every thing will start in new ways.

Importance of computer

Importance of computer
Before you know the importance of computer, you should know what is computer ? what can computer do, From where it has came from, who has made it.
Computer, Commonly Operated Machine Particularly Used for Trade Education and Resarch. In short Computer it is an electronic device which accepts data and information from us and by processing them gives result in display screen or other output device. It can be use for every calculation, Eduation, Reserch, Medical and scientific purpose. In Early days man were using Abacus for calculating purpose after Abacus many device invented like Napier's bone, Lagarithm, Slide rule, Pascal adding machine, Leibniz' s calculating machine etc and like that finally Computer came infront of us and the credit goes to Father of computer science Charles Babbage.
The Important of computer can not be define in languages, it has prove it self to be of great use and very important for todays fast developing age. Computer provide us many facilities like storage capacity, they are fast, excellent efficiency, fast and quick decision and many more. In todays world computer have capactured everything, everywhere, it has widely covered the whole world, you can take example of IT field. Now a days many of persons are making carrier in coamputer field. computer are widely use in Medical field, it is use in scientific also due to computer only it has been possible us to go out of world(earth). in todays day we can not thing our life without computer, we can not move single step also in our life of carrier.

What Computer can do ?

What Computer can do
What will be your answer? A computer can do nothing without Instruction the instruction means the task to be done. If it is hard to understand than take a example of master and servent. if a servent understands the order given by a master than he can do a work. if servent did not understand or master does not give any order than what can servent do he will just sit and watch. Take another example if a master said servent go and cook food than the servent will cook anything what he likes at that time it may be possible that the food is not master's favorite and he will not eat at that time it is not servent fault, master should give proper order similarly a computer will give an error message in case the instruction are not correctly given.
Computers are getting instruction through the user. user is a persons who uses and gives instruction to computer. While giving instruction he follows the rule which is called syntax. Every computer are made for an special purpose. Some are made for office and some are for business and we should be careful that the office and business purpose computer can not used for launching rocket.

Jan 5, 2010

Generation of Computer

Generation of Computer
Computer can be classified into different generation on the basis of development. In every generation computers are made more advanced, more accurate, more reliable and faster which can solve any kind of problem. In first generation of computer vaccum tube or valve were made through 1943-1958 A.D. Vaccum tubes were developed by the Lee De Forest in 1908. ENIAC and UNIVAC computers are example. In second generation Transistor were made through 1958-1965A.D. Transistor were made by team lead by william shockley. It is smaller in size and made very little sound . In third generation Silicon chips were invented through 1965-1973A.D. It is also known as I.C. or Integrated Circuit. In I.C. hundreds of transistor are fabricated on a very small chips and connected through metallic lines which acted like wires. In fourth generation Microprocessor were build which is also known as VLSI through 1973-1980A.D. In Processor it was Possible to puk all the components of a computer in a chip or Microprocessor. Any Processor will have tens of thousand of transistor and components build in it. Fifth generation computers are incomplete and it is supposing that fifth generation computer will have number of parallel circuits and will have some thinking Knowledge also. which will be known as Artificial Intelligence(AI)

History of Computer

History of Computer
In Early days man had no Knowledge of counting. As development Proceed and for Survival he Kept domestic animals at that time man uses pebbles(stones) for counting. later than man uses his ten finger for counting. since man had 10 fingers, he could count upto ten digits only 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. but this was very slow and this things helped Human beings to developed counting devices.
First came Abacus, it was only device used for counting and adding purpose. it was made of wood and the middle bar seperated the beads into two houses. the two houses were called heaven and earth. There were two beads in heaven and five beads on earth. It is still used in China, Japan and Russia. Secondly came Napier's bone which was made up bones and there were eleven rods and used for calculation purpose. you have to put them side by side for calculation. After Napier's bone Slide rule came which was made of plastic and it also used for calculation purpose the difference was that it can do multiplication also. Engineers used it till 1970. After the invention fo logarithim nothing could done, till pascal appeared on the scene. Pascal invented the device called Pascalline for calculation purpose. Pascal was just seventeen year's old.l at same period a german mathematician, build a better mechanical calculator having cylinders. This machine can add, subtract, multiply, Divide and find square root also. Among all off them there was an Englishman, Charles Babbage thought about using better mechanical calculator. He invented a device called Analytical Engine. and by his concept only it become possible for making computer. He is also callled as Father of computer Science.

Jan 4, 2010


computer= Commonly Operated Machine Particularly Used for Trade Education & Resarch. Computer is a Electronic device Which Accepts data and information from us and by Processing them gives Result Output.

Before Knowing about computer let us know from where it has come from? in past when computer was not invented or before 200 years ago man were using computer for calculation purpose. Do you know How? they were using Abacus which is also known as Early counting device this was made of wood having rounded balls, it was divided in two parts Heaven and Earth. it is still using in china and other country. After Abacus there was also many device invented like Pascal calculating machine, Napier's bone and many more. Different scients discovered different device but among all there was a man who thinked little more and try to discovered a new thing which can do all things. Do you know who was that person he was Charles Babbage. who want to discovered computer. but unfortunatly while working day by day he become blind but althogh he did not give up and convence his junior to make but they did not succeed and the project was at it is but after hundred years the new scients tried taking example of charles babbage and they got succeed. and this was the turning point and finally computer was came infront of us

Computer is Basically diveded in two parts Hardware and Software. Hardware is that part of computer which we can see touch or feel. like Motherboard, Harkdisk, Ram, Processor, keyboard, Mouse etc and Software is a soul of computer or in other language software is that part of computer which we cannot see touch or feel like Ms-word, Excel, powerpoint etc. Software is divided in two parts System software and Application software.